Rats - Mice - Squirrels - Moles - Rabbits - Insects - Ants - Flies - Wasps - Carpet Beetle - Cockroaches - Fleas,

Life Cycle – Egg – larva – pupa – adult Life Span –

Workers – 12-122 days;

Drones slightly longer than workers;

Queens average of 12 months Pest Factor –

Wasps are attracted to waste sites and animal bodies so can be responsible for the spread of disease. They can also inflict painful stings which, on rare occasions, can cause life threatening allergic reaction Life Style A fertilised queen wasp emerges from hibernation around mid April and searches for a suitable site to start her colony such as a roof space or tree cavity.

The nest is constructed from chewed bark and dried timber mixed with saliva. The queen initially lays 10-20 eggs. This first batch hatches into worker (sterile females). These then feed and protect subsequent eggs laid by the queen.

By late summer a nest will contain 3000 to 5000 wasps. During late summer males and new young queens will emerge and mate. The female selects a suitable site to spend the winter ready to start a new colony in the spring.

Life Style

Common Rat or Norway, Sewer or Brown Rat – (Rattus norvegicus) – Brown in colour with an off white underbelly,

adults up to 500g with a body length 270mm and a tail length of up to 200mm.

Litter size 8 to 10 – sexually mature 2-3 months – up to 7 litters per year

Lifespan 9-18 months

The common rat is a very adaptable omnivorous creature. It has poor eyesight and is colour blind. The rat compensates for this with an excellent sense of touch, taste, smell and hearing. Pest Problems Rodent incisors grow continuously hence the habit of gnawing; this has been known to cause deadly fires when electric cables are involved. Salmonella infections commonly occur from the contamination of food and water with rodent excreta. The bacterium causing Plague is transmitted to man by the rat flea. Isolated outbreaks still occur. Other rodent-borne diseases include rat-bite fever, lymphocytic choriomeningitis and murine typhus. Parasites transmitted by rodents include ringworm, tapeworms, tick and fleas. Pest factor – The common rat is known to carry diseases that affect humans such as Weil’s disease (leptospirosis); this has been found in the kidneys of up to 50% of some rat populations


Life Cycle – Eggs – nymph – adult

Lifespan – 9 months

Pest factor – They produce characteristic sour smell from there faecal deposits and are known to carry some pathogenic bacteria, which will contaminate human foodstuffs

Life Style Omnivorous scavenging nocturnal pest found in warm humid environments, heated buildings, institutions and heating systems. Often found in the vicinity of taps sinks and drains. The adult lays 1 egg case (ootheceae) containing 30 eggs that are carried by the female for 2 to 4 weeks until just before hatching.

Thought to be introduced to the UK at the time of the Crimean war. Known as the steam fly, it was frequently found in the galleys of Ocean-going ships. Very good climbers.


Life Cycle – Egg – larva – pupa – adult

Life Span – 2 months to 1 year

Pest Factor – They will happily feed on humans in the absence of their preferred host.

The irritating nature of the bite can cause acute itching resulting in serious infection to the affected area.

The female cat flea will lay up to 1000 eggs which will hatch around 7 days later feeding on animal protein debris and the blood rich excreta of the adult.

After 3 to 4 weeks and 2 to 3 skin moults they will spin a silken cocoon.

The adult flea may not emerge unless stimulated by the vibrations of a passing host, including humans, resulting in mass attacks to the legs and ankles.


Life Cycle – Eggs – nymph – adultpre - Lifespan – 10 months

Pest factor – Bites and allergies Life Style Nocturnal parasite hides by day in the crevices of beds, furniture, wallpaper & skirting boards.

Common in hotels, student accommodation and hostels. By night the bed bug will feed on mammal blood, including humans. The insect can ingest 7 times their own body weight in one feed. Pest Problems Bites can cause severe allergic reactions and very bad public relations when profit-making institutions are involved.